Wednesday, November 13th, 2019

Is Leather Eco-Friendly?

Published on March 12, 2009 by   ·   53 Comments Pin It

As Lucky Magazine’s newest issue touts leather as a completely eco-friendly choice, we went to eco-vegan shoe designer Elizabeth Olsen (from banging hot and editorial darling line OLSEN HAUS) for the real scoop.   IS Leather eco-friendly, or are those touting their Birkin bags and calling themselves “Green Goddesses” kidding themselves?

Here are the cold, hard facts: Producing leather heavily contributes to global warming, land devastation, environmental pollution, usage of valuable natural resources, water supply contamination, the abuse of billions of animals, and diseases in Adults and children.

From start to finish the amount of energy to create a leather hide is 20 times greater than that to produce a synthetic material. The production of leather requires: transport of feed to animals, removal of waste from animals, electricity in housing facility, electricity for other operations and killing in facility, pesticide use, vaccine and antibiotic use, transport to remove carcasses, transport of pelts; then to a tannery which involves sorting, soaking, fleshing, tanning, wringing, drying, kicking, cleaning, trimming, buffing, drying, finishing; then transport to the garment maker, then a wholesaler, and so on. (source 4)

Inside a typical tannery

Inside a typical tannery

Leather is the hide of a dead animal, it is by nature meant to decompose. To prevent decomposing it is treated with chemicals, just some of which are: hexavalent chromium salts, aniline, azo dyes, lead, cyanide, formaldehyde, tannins, solvents, formaldehyde, and chlorophenols. These chemicals pollute the land, air and water supply. Groundwater samples collected near tanneries indicated the presence of arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc, and total organic halides. Toxic gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulfide heavy metals and carcinogenic aryl amines are emitted into the air.

The face of your leather shoes

The face of your leather shoes

Vegetable-tanned leather is often touted as being less harmful to the environment. However, Bill Bartholomew, a representative for The Leather Group at World Shoes Accessories ecoEthics Conference, admitted that “eco-friendly” vegetable tanning is actually just as polluting as chrome tint.

I have not even touched on the billions of animals & people that suffer to produce leather. There are multiple studies regarding the health of the animals and people suffering from abuse, child labor, deplorable conditions. Or the wide variety of diseases and cancers contracted by workers and people in surrounding areas of tanneries.

GGA Founder Chloe Jo rocking her OlsenHaus booties

GGA Founder Chloe Jo rocking her OlsenHaus booties

Synthetic materials account for far less pollution, and only a fraction of the energy used. Regardless, synthetic polymers are not the only alternatives there are plenty of plant-based or sustainable and renewable fabrics available, including hemp, cotton, bamboo, ultra suede, and more.

I am a vegan for reasons that extend beyond the environment, such as I do not believe in the torture, castration, exploitation, electrocution, murder, and rape of any living being, but the facts above regarding the environment stand alone. In addition I have personally been to a tannery; the smell alone was the most horrifyingly putrid smell on earth.

A selection of vegan shoes from OlsenHaus

A selection of vegan shoes from OlsenHaus

Anyone trying to defend “eco-friendly” or sustainable leather, I invite you to do your own research, look deep inside for some critical thinking for the root of the problem.

I too, love free trade coffee in a recycled cup, and the latest eco- tote, but I am not under the illusion that these changes alone are going to save the planet.

Elizabeth Olsen is the furthest thing from a typical industry blonde. For one-she wouldn’t be caught dead in fur or leather. She’s peddling a whole new form of southern charm: vegan shoes. If every bit of gorgeous truth came packaged in an Olsenhaus shoe-box, we’d all be walking taller. Four inches taller, in some cases. She has been the Creative Director at Tommy Hilfiger and designed for Calvin Klein, Bulga, Nine West, Jodi Arnold MINT, and many others. On the West Coast, she’s worn the shoes of a print and ad-campaign stylist, and commercial and film stylist. Clients included Nike, Nike Goddess, Nissan, Universal Studios, IBM, and Corbis to name a few. For over twenty years, Elizabeth has been an outspoken advocate against the use of animals for food, clothing, experimentation, and entertainment, as well as for the environment and social justice.

1-Leather and the environment – Article from E/ The Environmental Magazine

2-UN Report “Livestock’s Long Shadow” 2006-

3-Doris Schubert, “Assessment of the Environmental Release of Chemicals From the Leather Processing Industry,” IC-07 Leather Processing Industry 28 Jul. 1998.

4Adventures in the Skin Trade,

5-United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Regis Tannery,” Waste Site Cleanup and Reuse in New England 9 Aug. 2006.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Pin It

Readers Comments (53)

  1. frankie y says:

    I appreciate the depth of information in this blog. However, I do not think it is fair to incorporate poor business practice (child labor) that could have easily been applicable to any manufacturers in less developed countries (the child labor information seems more like a filler to me in this case)

    Have you done your research in synthetic leather manufacturing (chemicals and by-products created in the process), along w/ the labor business practices and whether if any synthetic goods manufacturers has any human-rights compliant issues – in comparison to leather manufacturing?

  2. frankie y says:

    Further reading of your article, I do question the following points and its relativity/validity as problems caused by Tannery / leather manufacturers:
    * Pesticide use (even for animal feed, this is truly caused by the farming industry)
    * Transportation to the garment maker (are you saying fabric mill doesn’t have to do this with linen and cotton goods – synthetic leather as well?)
    * Then a wholesaler (Isn’t that apparel manufacturer’s cost rather than Tannery’s contribution of problem?)
    *** more I look at it, the less convincing your argument is. I feel that your argument would be a lot stronger if you go ahead and discuss more about synthetic leather’s manufacturing process as what it is (and let us be the judge)

    Vaccination and antibiotic use is part of the agricultural (livestock) maintainance. This is affected by the fluctuation of supply and demand. Aggressive price slashing doesn’t help stop this figure from rising. If anything at all, things should be controlled at the retail price points of goods as we often taken for-granted at how low they price these goods at when they should be priced more. Bigger demands means more animals killed. Control the price points and I’m sure there’ll be less demands.

  3. Ari says:

    Thanks again for exposing the truth. Leather is NOT a byproduct. It is the result of hideous exploitation. No being should have to suffer and be slaughtered for you to look fierce! What a lie we’ve all been told.

    • Robert says:

      Leather is too a Byproduct, it’s a byproduct the the beff industry. The animal DOES NOT suffer in the production of leather, only as a means of it becoming food. Also Leather has been used for garmets and tools since the dawn of time before a lot of the chemicals used today were even fathomable. if the way it’s produced today good? probobly not. but it is still a byproduct.

  4. Deana says:

    To be honest, I am not a vegan nor am I a vegetarian but I try not to buy leather because I don’t want to wear animals. It grosses me out (I barely eat meat). I do buy used leather but then is that a crime? Is that bad? What about child labor? What about going to J. Crew or some label like that and finding out your long sleeve is made in Malaysia? What about how gold is completely ruining Indonesia and completely ruining the land and the people are going to be out of jobs in like 10 years? So many questions…

  5. Elizabeth Olsen says:

    HI- In response to frankie y-
    Thanks for your comments and questions- the write up above is not an argument, but simply the facts, so there really isn’t anything to judge.

    Because this is a blog, I don’t’ have the space to go into depth with your issues , but there is skirting around the real issue of the tremendous harm leather causes, obviously to the animals, but also the environment, Yes, I have done extensive research over the last 20 years, have you?

    In comparing leather to synthetics it is like comparing MT Everest to an ant. Not only this, but I use synthetic man- made materials sparingly, there are so many other materials to use, such linen and organic cotton canvases, which I use for my line.

    The factories I work with and have filmed are pretty standard of material factories, they simply do not have the pollution, chemicals, waste or employee abuse that tanneries do. Have you ever been to a tannery, or a slaughter house?

    Pesticides-Animals are forced to reproduce and treated as economic units massive amounts of corn are grown to feed livestock which the government subsidizes corn crops are sprayed with pesticides and leather is a 1.5 billion dollar industry directly related to the livestock industry, and as more people lessen the intake of meat into their diet, the livestock industry relies on the profit of leather. It is all connected.

    Child Labor filler- ? Are you serious? Most leather comes from developing countries like China (dogs & cats included) and India where animal welfare laws are most lax.
    India is notorious for using child labor in tanneries- where half of those employed in tanneries are male children-
    (Source: Environmental Regulations in the New Global Economy- Jenkins, R.O., 2002)

    Transportation: In the blog it is to illustrate from start to finish the lengthy, arduous, and use of excessive energy to create a leather hide. There are unavoidable transportation issues with any product, but again comparing a massive mountain to an ant.

    In your last paragraph, I agree, the level of materialism in our society is especially in the US, grotesque. Is raising the prices the answer? I don’t know, but certainly exposing the truth, raising awareness and consciousness is the only way. People should be mad as hell they and they planet have been lied to, poisoned and manipulated.

    Namaste- Elizabeth Olsen

  6. […] Chloe Jo and the GGA weigh in on the myth that leather can be ‘eco-friendly‘ , on the best Vegan Cheeses, and on the controversy surrounding veganizing your companion […]

  7. Most people would like to believe that leather is a by-product that would otherwise be waste – but leather is an industry unto itself. The sooner we recognize that the ethical, environmental and social implications of leather manufacturing far exceeds those of plant-based and synthetics, the sooner we’ll have taken one more step toward a compassionate world.

    Also, materialism is a dialect that needs to be used – simply writing it off is not a tactic that addresses the problem or attempts to communicate with the majority who are spellbound by material objects.

  8. Great post, Elizabeth.

    Just something I was thinking about…what would happen if the US government raised prices and TAXES on all animal products? I was so happy to hear NY State is taxing sodas, alcohol and other ‘vices’, but imagine how much money the government would make from taxing these environmentally damaging products, and even better, imagine how much healthier our planet would be as a result??


  9. Hey Kendra- Absolutely!-Fab idea- I agree 100%, the livestock industry should be taxed,fined and forced to pay all the damage,and also people’s medical bills resulting from eating poison!-
    What they get now is subsidies and tax breaks, it’s just disgusting-

  10. Chloe Jo says:

    Gals, just so you know there are many more non-leather options out there (other than PAYLESS) from companies that are ethical and eco, but first and foremost animal caring! See our list here:'t-guessed-yet-we-are-eco-veggie-gals-and-here's-why/

  11. Jenith says:

    This is such an important topic, especially for “environmentalists” & vegetarians whom continue to use leather products. There is no way to deny how dangerous and damaging the leather industry is, from the micro to the macro. I think this topic really needs to start being talked about much much more.

  12. ShoeLady says:

    Thank you, Elizabeth. For years I’ve been trying to open the eyes of gullible veg*ns who have been tricked into believing that synthetics are worse than leather (I even penned an Herbivore article covering the subject, which apparently no one read). Hopefully, now that a respected vegan designer has joined the debate more people will actually pay attention!

  13. […] list for a while (and highly recommend it). I was glad to see the latest newsletter link back to a GGA blog entry from five days ago, guest-written by Elizabeth Olsen, who designs the Olsen Haus vegan shoe […]

  14. GreenerGirl says:

    Thanks, Elizabeth – this is a great article. Your shoes are a shining example of the fact that you don’t need leather to look fabulous!

  15. Elizabeth Olsen says:

    Thanks to the Vegan Shoe Lady comments/link to your blog- appreciate it! we are all so passionate about the issues,and so great that we have each other to support!What the shoes are doing is really opening these issues up to mainstream-currently the line is in Oprah, Marie Claire, and Lucky all this month,which was the goal-also going to be on the new show The Fashion Show- ( replacing project runway) introducing vegan shoes- so I look forward to the day that people know what veganism is because they are one themselves!!!! Namaste- Elizabeth

  16. Lanfranco says:

    I’m a leather manufacturer from Italy. I produce leather for interior and furnishing.
    I regret to say that this article is far from the truth and contains a lot of general and techical mistakes.
    Who wrote this item unfortunately has ever visited a tannery. If you plan to visit Italy send me an e-mail and I will be glad to show the tannery and let you know how eco-friendly it is.
    Of course I’m talking about an italian tannery.

    • Spencer says:

      I love your comment. There are many subjective, slippery-slope logical constructs used in this article. I enjoy hearing a boots-on-the-ground perspective in place of politically-charged rhetoric.

  17. In respoinse to LanFranco- thanks for your inquiry.

    I wrote the article, and you are sadly mistaken.

    Not only have I been to tanneries in Italy, Brazil and Asia, there are no “technical” mistakes in the peice, you have not given any indication, or information to the contrary to supoort your point, and lastly but most importantly, you completly chose to ignore the fact that the article is about the entire process of raising an animal for slaughter, and then processing a bloody piece of flesh all the way into a peice of leather.

    There is no disguising what you actually do, no matter how pretty the office maybe, you take the skin of a dead animal, which has already used tons of energy and created tons of waste for you to even get the flesh, and then you process the hell out of it so it doesn’t decompose. All tanneries smell like death, and you create more waste, even if you you use vegetable dyes instead of chrome.

    Tannneries are the last step on the cruel, laborious, and completly un-neccessary production of dead animal into leather.

    Italy as a nation prides itself on leather production, and it is a thing of the past. I know many tanneries have gone out of business, this should tell you something.

  18. Sean says:

    Hello Ms Olsen,

    I just opened my synthetic leather daily planner and it occured to me that I didn’t know if it was more or less energy efficient than having a leather one. For this reason, I appreciate your blog entry. In fact, I wanted to post a link to it on my blog because I thought it was an interesting question and answer.

    Could you tell me what source you used to state that it costs 20X the energy to make a leather hide vs. synthetic leather? I read the Forbes article and it was interesting, but it didn’t seem to anchor your statement.

    Thank you for your time.

  19. Hi,

    Thanks for your inquiry, the source is #3 above;
    3-Doris Schubert, Assessment of the Environmental Release of Chemicals From the Leather Processing Industry, IC-07 Leather Processing Industry 28 Jul. 1998.

  20. DoxQuomma says:

    Отличный блог, интересное и полезное содержание!

  21. As a handbag designer, I have worked with a variety of materials, including leather and synthetic equivalents. There are pros and cons to using any material, but it is pretty clear to me that mass production of leather products causes considerable damage to people and to the environment. While I have received a certain demand for leather products, my current collection is over 95% vegan. As Elizabeth from Olsenhaus points out, there are plenty of other options besides just leather or vinyl. If you want to see true change in the fashion industry we must support designers who are willing to offer these alternatives. As the demand increases for more eco-friendly materials, our suppliers will respond with even more efficient materials in the future. To make a positive impact, we should strive to make fewer and smarter purchases, and put our money where our beliefs are.

    While the materials being used should be a central part of the discussion, the following questions are *equally important* regarding the *entire life cycle* of the product:

    · Was it ethically created? Was it *made locally * or mass-produced overseas?
    · What is the *quality* of craftsmanship? Does it have reinforced sewn seams? Is it glued together?
    ·Can you wash the item yourself or do you have to dry clean it?
    ·Is it durable enough to use for years to come? Will it remain stylish beyond the seasonal trends?

  22. To Crystalyn- right on sister-

  23. […] can read the whole article at GGA, or go directly to the article’s […]

  24. Tara S. says:

    As a freelance designer I have worked with PVC, PU as well as leather from all types of countries from China to Italy. Most of the wet blue comes out of Africa with the tannery I order from in Italy, the wet blue is from animals in AFrica that were slaughtered for food, lots of goats, and cow…etc. After working with just synthetics and also leather, I prefer to design and sell leather goods, they last longer and don’t end up in the land fill like mass producted Target bags. The leather bags I have are vintage and recent designs as well, they have lasted me from 5 to 15 yrs, and the vintage ones are up to 50 yrs old and I still wear them. I can’t say the same for the PVC bags I have made or bought in the past. I have no fake leather bags in my collection, they all look like crap after a few months of wear, they just dont last. Same with fake leather shoes…they are not as comfortable as leather footwear, most of my shoes are at least 4 or 5 years old and they are Gucci or Prada…Payless shoes don’t last…I worked in footwear for years as well. I also grew up on a dairy farm and pig farm in Washington State for my childhood and come from a long line of farmers..our animals were never treated horribly or cruel. My father has a degree in animal car and science and all his livestock were well tended to and treated by a professional vet, and I personally cleaned out pig pens as a teen. Our cows would graze on several acreas and their manure was used to fertilize our crops. Its a honest way to make a living as a small town farmer, and it is an ethical thing to raise dairy cows or hogs. Its a good honest family business and I am proud to be a child who grew up on a farm. I do agree there is corruption in the industry now, and have read books like FAST food nation, but having a honest agricultural business is not immoral or unethical, people have been eating and using leathergoods for generations. Leather will never be out of style, and I am proud to design and produce leather goods and prefer it over synthetics, they both have their place, but not in the landflll. Its good to recycle and buy smart, but its not a sin to eat meat or wear leather…

  25. Yes, and we all used to live in caves, but now we live in houses and have cell phones.

    “Thou shall not kill”- was meant for whom, whomever or whatever we chose it to be for?
    Don’t think so,

    Furthermore you clearly are missing the point on the enviromental damage caused by making that dead animal skin last “50 years”, which it doesn’t last that long either, it dry rots and everyone has seen that.

    The message isn’t about quantity non- leather good/ materialism.
    It is about choices that you make and the effect through out the entire universe.

    Think about the energy of slaughter.
    There is nothing ethical about slaughter,but thanks for your comment.

  26. Sean says:

    Thanks for the reference.

  27. […] of billions of animals, and diseases in adults and children.   And we have facts to back it up: read this blog.   But not to worry, Cinderella, you won’t be stomping about shoe less! We have plenty of […]

  28. Jennie says:

    Hi all,
    I was just wondering what peoples opinions are about used/vintage leather? What are your oppositions to it? Or, why are not oppose to it? I’m curious. I am new to veganism and trying to learn as much as I can!
    Thanks very much!

  29. Chloe says:

    I do not wear vintage leather, et all. I donated my old leather/ wool/ silk/ fur/ suede or sold it and gave the $ to AR organizations. There are too many cruelty-free options to look hypocritical donning the stolen skins of animals.

  30. Barnaby says:

    Elizabeth Olsen- your comments in defence of your blog piece bring in biblical morality (‘thou shalt not kill’); I don’t know *what* you’re doing here. I didn’t realise this was a Christian issue? I thought the discussion was about the energy used to process animals into leather?

    And you don’t seem to properly defend yourself against Tara S, the farmer’s daughter: ‘there is nothing ethical about slaughter’ seems to be a grand and massive claim and one which I don’t think you have the intellectual authority to make.

    Also, small eco-tanneries often have pre-settling plants which feed into local sewage plants, guaranteeing no water-course pollution.

    This seems to be an ethical issue with you, which should be battled elsewhere, and not jumbled together with green issues (which is more of a ‘materialistic’).

  31. Barnaby says:

    –‘materialistic’ concern).

  32. Barnaby-

    What is your point exactly? What is your authority, or experience on any of the many layers of this issue?

    It would be pretty conclusive to say that a) you have no point other than to be a critic and
    b) you have no knowledge of this matter, and completely avoid the real issue of the pain and suffering these animals endure .. even defending “eco- tanneries” (oxy-moron)

    there is no way to seperate the way the animals are treated from the effects on the envirnoment, ethics or not…from mankind It is all interconnected
    Please re-contribute when you have facts, or any significate viewpoint to bring to the table, other than a uneducated opinion

    I have no affiliation to any man- made organized religion, “Thou shalt not kill” is one of the more amuzing ones that a huge percentage of the world recongizes-people can relate to this saying but only applies to certain beings..

  33. kg says:

    Thanks for the piece. I like how the facts are laid out and referenced. I appreciate Ms. Olsen’s passion about this subject, and it looks like she definitely walks the talk. I like that. Her shoe line is very attractive. I do wish I knew for sure that her (and other pricey vegan) shoes were as durable and breathable as their leather counterparts for the price… I’m trying to change my leather-wearing ways, and shoes are the one thing I struggle with – not for vanity purposes, but because I have had synthetic and leather shoes and find that leather shoes outlast any synthetics I’ve ever bought. I’d be interested in trying out a GOOD-QUALITY, breathable faux-leather shoe that was reasonably priced. I can’t just spend 150.00+ on a shoe and not be assured it will last. Sorry if that sounds vain or not as life-conscientious as it should, but I’m a work-in-progress.

  34. Chloe Jo says:

    Keisha, I have many pairs of OlsenHaus shoes… they last! But if you are looking for other vegan shoe lines with lower price points – they abound. Review this list for some other designers and shops to check out.

  35. kg says:

    @Chloe Jo:

    Thanks so much for the reply and the links. Before, I’d decided that I would try to go cruelty-free in all garments with the exception of some shoes until I could find a more durable alternative. I also plan on using any animal product I currently own, as I really don’t have a budget to replace them en masse. But I just wanted to say, I’ve been doing some more research and have found two other vegan shoe brands that I’m pretty excited about! I feel pretty encouraged at this point, knowing that the faux leather of today doesn’t mean sub-quality or non-breathable.

  36. […] leather is no better, environmentally or in the quest to avoid cancer.   Read all about that here. HAPPY FEET! Cri de Coeur "Felicity", Made from distressed cotton canvas […]

  37. About the wonderful, very pleased to see this article, learn some things, and view the text is recognized. Thank you for sharing. At the same timei love PU PVC leather very much !

  38. […] and vegan leather.  Hopefully this collection will do so well that Hillary will stop using “eco-leathers” for good and get on the veggie train.  If these two bags are any indication of what’s […]

  39. winnie says:

    Have any of you ever considered what the world would become if these animals only died of old age and illnesses and are not killed for food or other uses, how it would upset the entire ecosystem?
    And if you would like to bring in the issue of biblical morality, God first created the world with Man and animals, with the intention of giving man domination over animals.
    I personally choose not to eat meat as much as possible, but I use both leather and synthetic-material bags. I purchase by design, not by material or prestige, and I think both materials have their pros and cons. This debate will never end; neither industry will ever be eradicated. But people today are fickle-minded, you’d do better resorting to marketing gimmicks with seasonal designs and celebrity endorsements (celebrities that people are actually really crazy over, like Katy Perry and Rosie Huntington, as much as you sensible people would hate to admit) FIRST to pull people into your side of the market instead of these talks of morality and ethics that true leather-supporters do not even bother listening to.

  40. winnie says:

    Just my two cents worth. No hate (:

  41. […] Don’t buy leather. Much of the world’s leather comes from India (it’s shipped to Europe and the U.S. without labels), where cows are hauled hundreds of miles across borders in tightly packed trucks and in suffocating heat (often given no food or water whatsoever). Many are too weak to stand, so workers rub hot chili peppers into their eyes and break the bones in their tails one by one in order to get them up and walking. Learn more about this here. […]

  42. Thank you for every one of your efforts on this web page. My aunt delights in getting into research and it’s really obvious why. My partner and i know all of the powerful medium you provide both useful and interesting thoughts via the website and as well improve response from others about this article and our simple princess is certainly understanding a lot of things. Have fun with the remaining portion of the year. You have been doing a great job.

  43. I’m still learning from you, as I’m making my way to the top as well. I absolutely liked reading all that is posted on your site.Keep the tips coming. I liked it!

  44. John says:

    Brazil is one of the biggest leather suppliers in the world with exports of 8 million hides per year. To buy Brazilian leather directly from the source, use (, a comprehensive directory of Brazilian companies, including Brazilian leather, tanning and cowhide companies. is Brazil-based, and focused on facilitating business transactions between Brazil and the rest of the world.

  45. Gerax says:

    Well faux leather is less eco friendly than real leather, because is made enterely with chemicals that are not biodegradable. The most of the faux leather is made in China, a contry with zero respect to the enviroment (no enviroment protection laws), no workers rights and human rights, so if your are buying faux leather you are supporting a cancer to this world.

  46. […] newly released video from Mercy For Animals) and often indirectly (your glass of milk, lipstick, shoes.) But the first step towards non-harming is recognition and change.  We can all do better.  And it […]

  47. lisa k says:

    wow, Elizabeth is living in fantasy land. I am a vegetarian and I would applaud anyone who reduces their consumption of any animal products. Its a good move for our health and environment. But educate yourself about what leather really is. It is a byproduct and perfectly safe to produce and think child labor is a problem? it isnt and neither is the chemical conspiracy you describe. want to help? buy domestic leather from organic farm sources.

Shop GGA

Sharing Buttons by Linksku
  • Contributors
  • Disclaimer
  • Press
  • Cheapskates
  • Sign Up
  • About
  • Advertisers
  • Contact Us
  • Style & Beauty
  • Lifestyle
  • Mamazon
  • Nosh
  • Wellness
  • Exclusive
  • Default
  • Get This
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013
  • 2012
  • 2011
  • 2010
  • 2009
  • 2008